Friday, January 7, 2011

Sunni Scholars that Refuted "Ibn Taimiah" al-Harrani

Islamic Studies - Refutations
Bismillah, praise be to Allah, and we ask Allah to raise the rank of our beloved Prophet Muhammad, his kind Aal and companions, ameen.

Know that, although Ibn Taymiyah had many writings and a fame, he is as the Muhaddith, Hafiz, Faqih, Waliyy-ud-Din al-^Iraqiyy, the son of the Shaykh of Huffaz, Zayn-ud-Din al-^Iraqiyy, in his book "al-'Ajwibat-ul-Mardiyyah" said about him: His knowledge is bigger than his mind. He also said: He infringed the Ijma^ in many issues, which was said to be sixty issues, some of which are in the Usul and others in the Furu^ [Al-'Usul is ^Ilm-ut-Tawhid, the Science of the belief in Allah and His Messenger. Al-Furu^ deals with the Islamic matters other than those of belief (Usul), such as Salah, Siyam, and dealings.] After the Ijma^ has settled upon those issues, he violated it. Some lay people and others followed him in this violation. The scholars of his time hastened to refute him and charged him of bringing bid^ah [Bid^ah is innovation; something which is new some of which are Islamically acceptable and others are rejected. Here it refers to the prohibited innovation.] Among those was Imam, Hafiz, Taqiyy-ud-Din ^Aliyy Ibn ^Abd-il-Kafi as-Subkiyy. In "ad-Durrat-ul-Mudiyyah", he said what means: Ibn Taymiyah innovated the foul things in the Usul of belief and infringed the foundations of al-'Islam, after he was covering himself with following the Book (the Qur'an) and Sunnah, showing outwardly that he is a caller to truth and a guide to the Jannah. Consequently, he deviated from following the Book and Sunnah to innovation, and deviated from the Jama^ah of the Muslims [The Jama^ah is the Muslim group following the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and his Sahabah. The full name is Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jama^ah. It constitutes the majority of the Muslims.] by infringing the Ijma^. He said what leads to the jismiyyah and composition in the Holy Self of Allah and that it is not impossible that Allah needs a part. He said that the Self of Allah contains hawadith (events, creations), that the Qur'an is muhdath (created) and Allah spoke it after it was not, that Allah speaks and stops speaking, and that wills happen in Him according to the creations. He transgressed to say that the world did not have a beginning. He adhered to his saying that there is no beginning for the creations, thereby saying of the existence of hawadith [Al-Hawadith, the plural of al-hadith, is a creation, i.e., something the existence of which started at some point in time and it may be annihilated any time later. Al-Jannah (Paradise) and Jahannam (Hellfire), two creations of Allah, will never be annihilated because Allah has willed that for them.] without a beginning. Hence, he confirmed that the eternal attribute (of Allah) is created and the created hadith is eternal. No one has ever said both sayings in any religion. He was not among the seventy-three groups into which the Muslim Ummah was divided. In spite of all of this being horrible kufr (blasphemy), it is little compared to what he innovated in the Furu^.

Hafiz Abu Sa^id al-^Ala'iyy, the Shaykh of Hafiz al-^Iraqiyy, mentioned many of these issues. This was reported by Muhaddith, Hafiz, and historian Shams-ud-Din Ibn Tulun in "Thakha'ir-ul-Qasr". Among what was reported about Ibn Taymiyah, is his saying that Allah is the site of creations, that the world is eternal by kind and it always has been created with Allah, and some of which his saying of the jismiyyah, direction, and movement (of Allah). Ibn Taymiyah wrote a juz' (section) that Allah's knowledge does not pertain to what does not end, like the enjoyment of the people of Jannah, and that Allah does not know everything about the finite, that our prophet Muhammad, ^alayh-is-salam, has no jah (status) and whoever performs tawassul by him is wrong. He wrote many papers about that. He said exaggeratedly that starting a trip to visit our prophet is a sin which invalidates shortening the Salah in it. Before Ibn Taymiyah, no Muslim had said what he said. He said that the torture of the people of Hell stops and does not last forever. He was ordered to repent many times, but he broke his promises and agreements every time until he was imprisoned as per the fatwa of the Four Judges [The full text of this fatwa will be mentioned, by the will of Allah, at the end of the book.]one of whom was a Shafi^iyy, the second Malikiyy, the third Hanafiyy, and the fourth Hanbaliyy [A mathhab is a framework inferred by a mujtahid from the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma^, and Qiyas, by which he deduces the judgements on the practical matters of al-'Islam such as the Taharah, Salah, Zakah, Siyam, and Hajj. The Sunniyy mathahib which are available today are four: The Hanafiyy Mathhab, the Malikiyy Mathhab, the Shafi^iyy Mathhab, and the Hanbaliyy Mathhab. The respective founders of those mathahib are: Imam Abu Hanifah (80-150 A.H.), Imam Malik (93-179 A.H.), Imam ash-Shafi^iyy (150-204 A.H.), and Imam Ibn Hanbal (164-241 A.H.)] They passed the ruling that he was a straying man, against whom it is obligatory to warn, as was said in "^Uyun-ut-Tarikh" by Salah-ud-Din as-Safadiyy, who was a student of Ibn Taymiyah and of Taqiyy as-Subkiyy. King Muhammad Ibn Qalawun issued a decree to be read on the manabir [Manabir is the plural of minbar which is a podium, an elevated platform for a speaker or the like.] in Egypt and ash-Sham (area including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine) to warn people against him and his followers.

Ath-Thahabiyy, a contemporary of Ibn Taymiyah, had praised him first. However, when his case was exposed to him, he said in his treatise, "Bayanu Zaghal-il-^Ilm wat-Talab", page 17: By Allah, my eye has not fallen on a person who was more knowledgeable or more intelligent than a man called Ibn Taymiyah. He showed zuhd (disinterest) in food, clothing, and women. He supported the truth and performed Jihad (fighting non-Muslims for the sake of Allah) with every possible means. I got tired in weighing and digging him out. I got bored with that for long years. I found that as a result of his arrogance, self deceipt, excessive love to be the head of the scholars, and disdain with great people, he was falling behind the people of Egypt and ash-Sham; they hated him, degraded him, and charged him with lying and kufr. Look at the consequence of claim and love of appearance. We ask Allah for forgiveness. There are some people who are not more pious, knowledgeable, or zahid (careless about mundane matters) than he is. However, they overlook the sins of their friends. Allah did not empower those people over Ibn Taymiyah by their piety and greatness, but by his sins. What Allah warded off him and his followers is more; they only got some of what they deserve. Have no doubt about it. This treatise is confirmed about ath-Thahabiyy, because Hafiz as-Sakhawiyy reported this statement about him in his book "al-'I^lam bit-Tawbikh" on page 77.

Below is a list of the great prominent Sunni scholars that refuted Ibn Taymiah, along with their book names: (We listed it in Arabic since most of these books are only in Arabic) ------------------------------------------------------------------

ذِكر بعض العلماء والفقهاء والقضاة الذين ناظروا ابن تيمية أو ردوا عليه وذكروا معايبه ممن عاصروه أو جاءوا بعده

الحمد لله رب العالمين، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا وقدوتنا محمد الأمين وبعد قال الله وتعالى: (ولتكن منكم أمة يدعون إلى الخير ويأمرون بالمعروف وينهون عن المنكر). وروى الإمام أحمد من طريق اسماعيل بن أبي خالد عن قيس بن أبي حازم قال: قام أبو بكر رضي الله عنه فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال: يا أيها الناس أنكم تقرءون هذه الآية: (يا أيها الذين ءامنوا عليكم أنفسَكم لا يضركم من ضل إذا اهتديتم) وإنّـا سمعنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: "إن الناس إذا رأوا المنكر فلم يغيروه أوشك أن يعمهم الله بعقابه". فلهذا وجب التحذير من أهل البدع والضلال الذين انحرفوا عن جمهور الأمة الإسلامية. ومن هؤلاء ابن تيمية الحراني. وقد رد عليه عدد كبير من علماء أهل السنة وبينوا انحرافه.

يلي ذكر أسماء بعض من ناظر ابن تيمية المتوفى سنة 728 ص أو ردّ عليه من المعاصرين له والمتأخرين عنه من شافعية وحنفية ومالكية وحنابلة، ونذكر رسائلهم وكتبهم التي ردوا عليه فيها فمنهم:

1- القاضي المفسر بدر الدين محمّد بن إبراهيم بن جماعة الشافعي المتوفى سنة 733هـ . 2- القاضي محمّد بن الحريري الأنصاري الحنفي. 3- القاضي محمّد بن أبي بكر المالكي. 4- القاضي أحمد بن عمر المقدسي الحنبلي. وقد حبس بفتوى موقعة منهم سنة 726 هـ . أنظر عيون التواريخ للكتبي، ونجم المهتدي لابن المعلّم القرشي.

* فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري. * الإشارة بطرق حديث الزيارة. 36- الحافظ ولي الدين العراقي المتوفى سنة 826 هـ. الأجوبة المرضية في الرد على الأسئلة المكية. 37 _ الفقيه المؤرخ ابن قاضي شهبة الشافعي المتوفى سنة 851 هـ. * تايخ ابن قاضي شهبة. 38- الفقيه أبو بكر الحصني المثوفى مشة 829 هـ. * دفع شبه من شبه وتمرد وننسب ذلك إلى الإمام أحمد. 39- رد عليه شيخ إفريقيا أبو عبد الله بن عرفة التونسي المالكي المتوفى سنة 853هـ . 45- العلأمة علاء الدين البخاري الحنفي المتوفى سنة 841 هـ ، كفره وكفر من سماه شيخ الإسلام أي من يقول عنه شيخ الإسلام مع علمه بمقالاته الكفرية، ذكر ذلك الحافظ السخاوي في الضوء اللامع. 41- الشيخ محمد بن أحمد حميد الدين الفرغاني الدمشقي الحنفي المتوفى سنة 867 هـ. * الرد على ابن تيمية في الاعتقادات. 42- ردّ عليه الشيخ أحمد زروق الفاسي المالكي س المتوفى سنة 899هـ . * شرح حزب البحر. 43- الحافظ السخاوي المتوفى سنة 902 هـ . *الإعلان بالتوبيخ لمن ذمّ التاريخ. 44- أحمد بن محمد المعروف بابن عبد السلام المصري المتوفى سنة 931 هـ. * القول الناصر في رد خباط علي بن ناصر. 45- ذمه العالم أحمد بن محمد الخوارزمي الدمشقي المعروف بابن قرا المتوفى سنة 968 هـ. 46- القاضي البياضي الحنفي المتوفى سنة 1098 هـ. * إشارات المرام من عبارات الإمام. 47- الشيخ أحمد بن محمّد الوتري المتوفى سنة 980 هـ . * روضة الناظرين وخلاصة مناقب الصالحين. 48- الشيخ ابن حجر الهيتمي المتودى سنة 974هـ . * الفتاوى الحديثية. " الجوهر المنظم في زيارة القبر المعظم. حاشية الإيضاح في المناسك. 49- الشيخ جلال الدين الدواني المتوفى سنة 928 هـ * شرح العضدية. 50- الشيخ عبد النافع بن محمّد بن علي بن عراق الدمشقي المتوفى سنة 926 هـ * أنظر ذخائر القصر في تراجم نبلاء العصر لابن طولون (ص/ 32- 33). 51- القاضي أبو عبد الله المقرى. * نظم اللالي في سلوك الأمالي. 52- ملا علي القاري الحنفي المتوفى سنة 014 ا هـ. * شرح الشفا للقاضي عياض. 53- الشيخ عبد الرءوف المناوي الشافعي المتوفى سنة 531 ا هـ * شرح الشمائل للترمذي. 54- المحذث محمّد بن علي بن علان الصديقي المكي المتوفى سنة 057 ا هـ. المبرد المبكي في رد الصارم المنكي. 55- الشيخ أحمد الخفاجي المصري الحنفي المتوفى سنة 9 1 0 ا هـ. شرح الشفا للقاضي عياض. 56- المؤرخ أحمد أبو العباس المقري المتوفى سنة 041 ا. أزهار الرياض. 57- الشيخ محمّد الزرقاني المالكي المتوفى سنة 122 ا هـ . * شرح المواهب اللدنية. 58- الشيخ عبد الغني النابلسي المتوفى سنة 43 ا اهـ * ذمه في أكثر من كتاب. 59- ذمه الفقيه الصوفي محمّد مهدي بن علي الصيادي الشهير بالرواس المتوفى سنة 1287 هـ. 60- السيد محمّد أبو الهدى الصيادي المتوفى سنة 1328 هـ. * قلادة الجواهر. 61- المفتي مصطفى بن أحمد الشطي الحنبلي الدمشقي المتوفى سنة 1348 هـ * النقول الشرعية. 62- محمود خطاب السبكي المتوفى سنة 1352 هـ * الدين الخالص أو إرشاد الخلق إلى دين الحق. 63- مفتي المدينة المنورة الشيخ المحدث محمد الخضر الشنقيطي المتوفى سئة 1353. * لزوم الطلاق الثلاث دفعه بما لا يستطيع العالم دفعه. 64- الشيخ سلامة العزامي الشافعي المتوفى سنة 1376 هـ * البراهين الساطعة في ردّ بعض البدع الشائعة. *مقالات في جريدة المسلم (المصرية). 65- مفتي الديار المصرية الشيخ محمد بخيت المطيعي المتوفى سنة 1354 هـ. * تطهير الفؤاد من دنس الاعتقاد. 66- وكيل المشيخة الإسلامية في دار الخلافة العثمانية الشيخ محمّد زاهد الكوثري المتوفى سنة 1371 هـ * كتاب مقالات الكوثري. *التعقب الحثيث لما ينفيه ابن تيمية من الحديث. * البحوث الوفية في مفردات ابن تيمية. * الإشفاق على أحكام الطلاق. 67- إبراهيم بن عثمان السمنودي المصري، من أهل هذا العصر. *نصرة الإمام السبكي برد الصارم المنكي. 68- عالم مكة محمد العربي التبّان المتوفى سنة 1395هـ . * براءة الأشعريين من عقائد المخالفين. 69- الشيخ محمّد يوسف البنوري الباكستاني. * معارف السنن شرح سنن الترمذي. 70- الشيخ منصور محمّد عويس ، من أهل هذا العصر. * ابن تيمية ليس سلفيا. 71- الحافظ الشيخ أحمد
5- الشيخ صالح بن عبد الله البطائحي شيخ المنيبيع الرفاعي نزيل دمشق المتوفى سنة 707هـ. أحد من قام على ابن تيمية ورد عليه، (أنظر روضة الناظرين وخلاصة مناقب الصالحين لأحمد الوتري". وقد ترجمه الحافظ ابن حجر في الدرر الكامنة. 6- عصريه الشيخ كمال الدين محمد بن أبي الحسن علي السراج الرفاعي القرشي الشافعي. تفاح الأرواح وفتاح الأرباح. 7- قاضي القضاة بالديار المصرية أحمد بن إبراهيم السروجي الحنفي المتوفى سنة 710 هـ . اعتراضات على ابن تيمية في علم الكلام. 8- قاضي قضاة المالكية علي بن مخلوف بمصر المتوفى سنة 718 هـ. كان يقول: ابن تيمية يقول بالتجسيم وعندنا من اعتقد هذا الاعتقاد كفر ووجب قتله. الشيخ الفقيه علي بن يعقوب البكري المتوفى سنة 724 هـ ، لما دخل ابن تيمية إلى مصر قام عليه وأنكر على ابن تيمية ما يقول. 10- الفقيه شمس الدين محمد بن عدلان الشافعي المتوفى سنة 749 هـ . كان يقول: إن ابن تيمية يقول: إن الله فوق العرش فوقية حقيقية، وان الله يتكلم بحرف وصوت. 11- الحافظ المجتهد تقي الدين السبكي المتوفى سنة 756 هـ . الاعتبار ببقاء الجنة والنار. الدرة المضية في الرد على ابن تيمية. شفاء السقام في زيارة خير الأنام. النظر المحقق في الحلف بالطلاق المعلق. نقد الاجتماع والافتراق في مسائل الأيمان والطلاق. التحقيق في مسألة التعليق. رفع الشقاق عن مسألة الطلاق. 12- ناظره المحدث المفسر الأصولي الفقيه محمّد بن عمر بن مكي المعروف بابن المرخل الشافعي المتوفى سنة 716. 13- قدح فيه الحافظ أبو سعيد صلاح الدين العلائي المتوفى سنة 761 هـ . * أنظر ذخائر القصر في تراجم نبلاء العصر لابن طولون (ص/ 32- 33). * أحاديث زيارة قبر النبي . 14- قاضي قضاة المدينة المنورة أبو عبد الله محمد بن مسلّم بن مالك ألصالحي الحنبلي المتوفى سنة 726 هـ . 15- معاصر ه الشيخ أحمد بن يجيى الكلابي الحلبي المعروف بابن جهبل المتوفى سنة 733 هـ . * رسالة في نفي الجهة. 16- القاضي كمال الدين بن الزملكاني ألمتوفي سنة 727 هـ . * ناظره وردّ عليه برسالتين، واحدة في مسئلة الطلاق الأخرى في مسئلة ا لزيا رة. 17- ناظره القاضي صفي الدين الهندي المتوفى سنة 715 هـ . 18- الفقيه المحدّث علي بن محمّد الباجي الشافعي المتوفى سنة 714 هـ ناظره في أربعة عشر موضعا وأفحمه. 19- المؤرخ الفقيه المتكلم الفخر بن المعلّم القرشي المتوفى سنة 725 هـ- نجم المهتدي ررجم المعتدي. 20- الفقيه محمد بن علي بن علي المازني الدهان الدمشقي المتوفى سنة !! رسالة في الرد غلى ابن تيمية في مسألة الطلاق. رسالة في الرد على ابن تيمية في مسألة الزيارة. 21- الفقيه أبو القاسم أحمد بن محمد بن محمد الشيرازي المتوفى سنة 733 هـ رسالة في الرد على ابن تيمية. 22- رد عليه الفقيه المحدث جلال الدين محمد القزويني الشافعي المتوفى سنة 739 هـ 23- مرسوم السلطان ابن قلاوون المتوفى سنة 741 وو بحبسه. 24- معاصره الحافظ الذهبي المتوفى سنة 748 هـ * بيان زغل العلم والطلب. * النصيحة الذهبية. 25- المفسر أبو حيان الأندلسي المتوفى سنة 745 هـ * تفسير النهر الماد من البحر المحيط. 26- الشيخ عفيف الدين عبد الله بن أسعد اليافعي اليمني ثم المكي المتوفى سنة 768هـ. 27- الفقيه الرحالة ابن بطوطة المتوفى سنة 779هـ . رحلة ابن بطوطة. 28- الفقيه تاج الدين السبكي المتوفى سنة 771 هـ. * طبقات الشافعية الكبرى. 29- تلميذه المؤرخ ابن شاكر الكتبي المتوفى سنة 764 هـ * عيون التواريخ. 30- الشيخ عمر بن أبي اليمن اللخمي الفاكهي المالكي المتوفى سنة 734 هـ . * التحفة المختارة في الرد على منكر الزيارة. 31- القاضي محمد السعدي المصري الأخنائي المتوفى سنة755 هـ . * المقالة المرضية في الرد على من ينكر الزيارة المحمدية، طبعت ضمن "البراهين الساطعة" للعزامي. 32- الشيخ عيسى الزواوي المالكي المتوفى سنة 743 هـ. * رسالة في مسألة الطلاق. 33- الشيخ أحمد بن عثمان التركماني الجوزجاني الحنفي المتوفى سنة 744هـ . * الإبحاث الجلية في الرد على ابن تيمية. 34- الحافظ عبد الرحمن بن أحمد المعروف بابن رجب الحنبلي المتوفى سنة 795هـ . * بيان مشكل الأحاديث الواردة في أن الطلاق الثلاث واحدة. 35- الحافظ ابن حجر العسقلاني المتوفى سنة 852هـ . * الدرر الكامنة في أعيان المائة الثامنة. * لسان الميزان. بن الصديق الغماري المغربي المتوفى سنة 1380 هـ * هداية الصغراء. * القول الجلي. 72- الشيخ المحدث عبد الله الغماري المغربي المتوفى سنة 1314 هـ . * إتقان الصنعة في تحقيق معنى البدعة. * الصبح السافر في تحقيق صلاة المسافر. * الرسائل الغمارية، وغيرها من الكتب. 73- المسند أبو الأشبال صالم بن جندان الأندونيسي. * الخلاصة الكافية في الأسانيد العالية. 74- حمد الله البراجوي عالم سهارنبور.- * البصائر لمنكري التوسل بأهل القبور. 75- وقد كقره الشيخ مصطفى أبو سيف الحمامي في كتابه غوث العباد ببيان ا لرشا د. وقرّظه له جماعة وهم الشيخ محمّد سعيد العرفي، والشيخ يوسف الدجوي، والشيخ محمود أبو دقيقة، والشيخ محمّد البحيري، والشيخ محمّد عبد الفتاح عناتي، والشيخ حبيب الله الجكني الشنقيطي، والشيخ دسوقي عبد الله العربي، والشيخ محمّد حفني بلال. 76- رد عليه أيضا محمد بن عيسى بن بدران السعدي المصري. 77- السيد الشيخ الفقيه علوي بن ظاهر الحداد الحضرمي. 78- مختار بن أحمد المؤيد العظمي المتوفى سنة 1340 هـ *جلاء الأوهام عن مذاهب الأئمة العظام والتوسل بجاه خير الأنام عليه الصلاة والسلام، رد فيه على كتاب "رفع الملام " لابن تيمية. 79- الشيخ إسماعيل الأزهري. * مرءاة النجدية.

80- الشيخ سراج الدين عباس الأندونيسي المتوفى سنة 1403 هـ. له كتب في العقيدة حذر فيها من عقائد ابن تيمية.
فانظر أيها الطالب للحق وتمعن بعد ذلك، كيف يلتفت إلى رجل تكلم فيه كل هؤلاء العلماء ليبينوا حقيقته للناس ليحذروا منه، فهل يكون بيان الحق شيئا يعترض عليه، سبحانك هذا بهتان عظيم.
These scholars warned form him due to his deviations especially in Aqeedah beliefs. He attributes to Allah the body and the sitting.

Ibn Taymiyah's saying of Allah sitting is confirmed about him, although some of his followers negated this when they found it ugly. He mentioned this in his book "Minhaj-us-Sunnat-in-Nabawiyyah" by sayings: The majority of Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jama^ah say that Allah, tabaraka wa ta^ala, [Tabaraka wa ta^ala attributes the giving and perfection to Allah.] descends and al-^Arsh does not get void of Him. He claimed that this was reported about Ishaq Ibn Rahawayh, Hammad Ibn Zayd, Imam Ahmad, and others. He is a fabricator and great lier about that.

In his Tafsir named "an-Nahr", the Grammarian Abu Hayyan al-'Andalusiyy reported about Ibn Taymiyah having this belief. He said: In his handwriting, a book of Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah, who was contemporary with us, which he called "Kitab-ul-^Arsh", I read: Allah sits on al-Kursiyy and has left a space for the Messenger of Allah to sit with Him. At-Taj Muhammad Ibn ^Aliyy Ibn ^Abd-il-Haqq al-Baranbariyy pretended that he is a promoter of his ideas and tricked him, until he took it from him; we read that in it. [The author of "Kashf-uz-Zunun" reported that about him also in Volume 2, page 1438.]

This reporting of Abu Hayyan was omitted from the old printed copy. However, the manuscript confirms it. In his commentary on "as-Sayf-us-Saqil", page 85, az-Zahid al-Kawthariyy said explaining the reason of omitting these statements of Ibn Taymiyah: The editor of as-Sa^adah Printing House told me that he found it very ugly and he omitted it upon printing so that the enemies of al-'Islam would not use it. Then he requested that I record that here to catch up what he missed and out of sincerity to the Muslims. In "al-Muwafaqah", page 29, Ibn Taymiyah said: Allah, ta^ala, has a hadd no one but Him knows it. One should not imagine that hadd for a purpose in himself, but believe it and leave knowing about it to Allah. His place has a hadd, which is on His ^Arsh above His skies. These are two limits. In the twenty-fifth volume of "al-Kawakib-ud-Darariyy", which is in the Library of az-Zahiriyyah in Damascus, Ibn Taymiyah said: If Allah willed he would sit on a mosqito, which would carry Him by His power; how about on a large ^Arsh!

Be warned from Ibn Taymiah, Ibn Baz, Ibn Uthaymeen, and all the wahhabis and their books as well as their websites.

Allah knows best.

The Types of Blasphemy and Blasphemers (Kufur)

Islamic Studies - Islamic Beliefs
The Types of Blasphemy and Blasphemers

Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ

Innal-ladhina kafaru wa saddu ^an sabilillahi thumma matu wa hum kuffarun falay-yaghfirallahu lahum.

Ayah 34 of Surah Muhammad means: {Those who blaspheme and prevent others from embracing Islam, then die as blasphemers, will not be forgiven by Allah.}

Blasphemy is the opposite of belief, just as darkness is the opposite of light. It is of three types: likening God to the creation (tashbih), contradicting (takdhib), and denying (ta^til).

Tashbih: Likening Allah to His creation. An example is to say or believe that Allah has legs.
Takdhib: Contradicting the honorable Qu’ran or what was undoubtedly related from the Prophet and known by every Muslim scholar, like negating the resurrection of the bodies and souls, or negating the obligation of prayer, fasting, or Zakah.

Ta^til: Negating or denying the existence of Allah. This type is the most blasphemous. Likewise is denying any of Allah’s Thirteen Attributes.

Blasphemers are of two types. One is the original blasphemer. The other one is the apostate (murtadd).

The original blasphemer is the one who was born to two blasphemous parents and reached pubescence on a blasphemous belief.

The apostate (murtadd) is the person who was Muslim, then committed one of the types of blasphemy (riddah).

Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ
قُلْ أَبِاللّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِؤُونَ  لاَ تَعْتَذِرُواْ قَدْ كَفَرْتُم

Qul abillahi wa ayatihi wa rasulihi kuntum tastahzi’un. La ta^tadhiru qad kafartum ba^da imanikum.

Ayahs 65-66 of Suratut-Tawbah mean: {O Muhammad, say: Do you mock Allah, His verses, and His Messenger? Do not offer excuses. Now you are judged as blasphemers, after you were judged as Muslims.}

Apostasy (Riddah) is leaving Islam. It is the most abhorrent type of blasphemy. Hence, it is obligatory on every Muslim to preserve his Islam and protect it from apostasy (riddah), which invalidates his Islam. May Allah protect us from it.

The categories of blasphemy: The scholars classified blasphemy into three categories: blasphemy of belief, blasphemy of action, and blasphemy of saying.

Each category of these categories is divided into many subdivisions:
Examples of the blasphemy of belief include:
        * Denying the existence of Allah.
        * Believing that Allah does not have the Power to do something.
        * Believing Allah is ignorant.
        * Believing that Allah is a body, light, or a soul.
        * Believing that drinking alcohol or stealing is permissible.
        * Believing that Allah did not obligate the five prayers, fasting the month of Ramadan, paying Zakah, or making Hajj. 

Examples of the blasphemy of action include:
        * To throw the Qur’an or other Islamic papers purposely in the trash.
        * To prostrate to an idol, or the sun, or to any other creation with the intention of worshipping it.
        * To write ayahs of the Qur’an in urine.

Examples of the blasphemy of saying include:
        * Cursing Allah, His prophets, angels, Islam, or the Qur’an.
        * Mocking the prayer or fasting.

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:
إِنَّ الْعَبْدَ لَيَتَكَلَّمُ بِالْكَلِمَةِ لاَ يَرَى بِهَا بَأْساً يَهْوِي بِهَا فِي النَّارِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا

Innal-^abda layatakallamu bil-kalimati la yara biha ba’say yahwi biha finnari sab^ina kharifa.

Which means: “A slave may utter a word that he deems harmless that may result in his falling the depth of seventy years into Hellfire.” (Related by at-Tirmidhiyy.)
Falling the distance of seventy years means falling to the deepest bottom of Hellfire, which is reserved for the blasphemers. This hadith is a proof that it is not a condition for falling into blasphemy that one knows the judgment, or feels happy with, or believes in the uttered words.

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:
أَكْثَرُ خَطَايَا ابْنِ ءَادَمَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ

Aktharu khataya bni Adama mil-lisanih.
Which means: “Most of one's sins are from one’s tongue.” (Related by at-Tabaraniyy.)

The Rule: Any belief, action, or saying which belittles Allah, His Books, His Messengers, His Angels, His Rites, the well-known practices of His Religion, His Rules, His Promise, or His Threat is blasphemy. So, one must use caution with one’s utmost effort to avoid blasphemy at all times.

Benefit: The scholars said: Denying what is commonly known among the Muslims to be a part of the Religion is blasphemy. For something to be commonly known to be part of the Religion means that it is a matter that is known by all Muslims, both the laypeople and the scholars alike. In other words, it is not something known only by scholars. This is like the obligation of the five prayers, fasting Ramadan, the permissibility of buying and selling, and the unlawfulness of drinking alcohol and stealing.

The Oneness of Allah (Tawheed)

Islamic Studies - Islamic Beliefs
The Oneness of Allah

Allah, ta^ala said in the Qur’an:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ
Laysa kamithlihi shay’.
Ayah 11 of Suratush-Shura means: {Nothing resembles Him (Allah) in any way.}

This means that Allah, ta^ala, does not resemble any of His creations.

It was related that a group of Jews came to the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, and said: “O Muhammad, describe to us your Lord Whom you worship.” Then Suratul-Ikhlas was revealed, and Prophet Muhammad said, “This is the description of my Lord.”

The questioning of the Jews was with the intent of mockery and not to seek the knowledge.

The answer of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, indicates that Allah is attributed with attributes, and just as Allah Himself does not resemble His creation, His Attributes do not resemble the attributes of the creation. Allah is attributed with all the proper perfection, and He is clear from all the attributes of imperfection.

Allah, ta^ala, said in the Qur’an:

وَلِلّهِ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَىَ
Wa lillahil-mathalul-a^la.

Ayah 60 of Suratun-Nahl means: {Allah has the perfect Attributes that are not similar to the attributes of others.} Everything other than Allah is created (i.e., this entire universe).

Allah is the only One attributed with Eternity. That is, Allah has no beginning and likewise His Attributes are eternal, without a beginning. The attributes of other than Allah are created; they change from one state to another. Allah is clear of change. He is the One Who creates changes in His creations, but He does not change. He is the One Who creates development in His creations, but He does not develop.

It is helpful to look at the following phrases to understand this subject of Tawhid (Creed).

Allah is Eternal; He has no beginning.
All the creations have a beginning. Allah created them.

Allah is Everlasting; He has no end.
It is mentally possible for all the creation to end.

The Attributes of Allah are eternal and everlasting; they have no beginning or end.
The attributes of the creation are created. They have a beginning and it is mentally possible for them to end.

The Attributes of Allah do not change, develop, or transform, because those processes belong to the attributes of the creation.
The attributes of the creation change, develop, and transform from one state to another, because Allah is their Creator.

Allah is the Creator of the world and what is in it. He is the Creator of good and evil. He is the Creator of the actions of the slaves, and He is their Sustainer.
The creations do not create good or evil. They do not create any of their actions. The one who cuts an apple is not able to put it back together as it was.

Allah is One with no partners to Him. He is One in His Self, Attributes, and Actions.
The creations are of many different shapes and colors. Even the same kind of fruit can be either sweet or sour. Yet the creations still resemble each other in many aspects.

Allah is not a body; He does not have a size, and does not occupy space.
The creations have sizes and places in which they reside.

Allah does not need the creation.
The creations are in need of their Creator; they are in need of Allah.

Allah is the only One Who deserves to be worshipped. No one is God but He.
The creations do not deserve to be worshipped, because they are weak and are in need of their Creator.

The creed of the Muslims is that Allah is unlike the creations. Imam al-Junayd, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “Tawhid is to differentiate between the Eternal and the created.”

Clearing Allah from Being a Body or Contained in a Place or Direction

The Hanbali Salafi Proofs in Clearing Allah from Being a Body or Contained in a Place or Direction            

Islamic Studies - Islamic Beliefs
Bismillah, praise be to Allah the creator that has no beginning and no end, and does not resemble the creations and does not need any of the creations, we ask Allah to raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his kind Aal and companions, Thereafter
Know that all the Muslims of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama^ah unite on the same creed, believing in the oneness of Allah, and clearing Allah from resembling the creations or needing any of his creations. And based on that, the belief of Ahlus-Sunnah was clearing Allah from being in a place or having a body or form, Subhanahu wa Ta^ala.
Although Ash^aris (Such as Nawawiy, Ibn Hajar, Baqillaniy, Qurtubiy) were well known to have refuted the sects such as the Karamiah, Mu^tazilah, Jahmiyah, and Mushabbihah (Those who liken Allah to his creations), let it be clear that the creed of the Asharis is the creed of the Salaf and Khalaf scholars. Because Ash^aris deduced and summarized the creed of the Prophet and the companions with the textual and mental proofs.
Islam and the mind do not accept the claim that Allah is a body or has a place or position or direction. Because the one that has a body, or is in a place, or in a direction, is created, and Allah is the creator of the places, bodies and directions, and He does not need nor resemble any of his creations in anyway. So all the Sifat (attributes) of Allah which are numerous, are confirmed to Allah Subhanahu without resembling them to the creations in any way.

And based on that, the scholars reported that the Imams of the Four Schools of Ahlus-Sunnah have agreed to declare the one who attributes to Allah the body as a kafir.

- Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said: "Whoever says that Allah is a body unlike the bodies have blasphemed (committed kufur)". This is because Allah is not a body, and is not like the creations in anyway.
- Also the great Mufassir Ibn al-Jawziy al-Hanbaliy said in his book "Daf^ Shubah at-Tashbih" page 58: "The obligation upon us is to believe that the self of Allah ta^ala is not contained in a place, and He is not attributed with change nor movement". - And Ibn al-Jawziy also said: "Some people lied when they heard about the Sifat (attributes of Allah) and interpreted them according to the physical meanings, such as those who claimed that Allah literally descends from the sky and moves from one place to another. This is an ill understanding, because the one who moves would be from a place to a place, and that necessitates that the place is bigger than him and that requires movement, and all of that is impossible to be attributed to Allah the Exalted".
As known, Imam Ibn al-Jawziy is the great interpreter of al-Qur'an, and one of the great heads of the Hanbalis. In his book "Daf^ Shubah at-Tashbih" he refuted the Mushabbiha and Mujassimah that attributed themselves falsely to the Hanbali School. He also cleared Imam Ahmad and the Salaf from the beliefs of Tajsim (attributing a body to Allah) and Tashbih (likening Allah to his creations), and cleared Allah from the place, space, size, shape, limit, body, sitting, standing, settling, and other attributes of the creations.

- Ibn Hajar al-Haitamiy also confirmed in his book "al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyah" page 144 that Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal clears Allah from being a body, or having a limit, size, shape, place or direction. He said: "The creed of the Imam of Alsunna Ahmad Bin Hanbal (Radiallahu ^Anhu) complies with the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama^ah in exceptionally clearing Allah completely from what the ungrateful wrongdoers did by attributing to Allah non befitting attributes such the direction and body and other attributes of imperfection, in fact any attribute that does not have complete perfection. And what became popular between the ignorant people who falsely claim to follow this great Imam (Ahmad bin Hanbal) al-Mujtahid, that he attributed the direction to Allah or such, this is a lie and a false accusation to him".

وقال الشيخ شهاب الدين أحمد بن محمد المعروف بابن حجر الهيتمي الأشعري (974 )ها ما نصه (الفتاوى الحديثية (ص/ 144): "عقيدة إمام السُّنة أحمد بن حنبل رضي الله عنه موافقة لعقيدة أهل السنة والجماعة من المبالغة التامّة في تنزيه الله تعالى عما يقول الظالمون والجاحدون علوّا كبيرا من الجهة والجسمية وغيرهما من سائر سمات النقص، بل وعن كل وصف ليس فيه كمال مطلق، وما اشتهر بين جهلة المنسوبين إلى هذا الإمام الأعظم المجتهد من أنه قائل بشىء من الجهة أو نحوها فكذب وبهتان وافتراء عليه"ا.هـ

But the Mushabbihah (such as the Wahhabis or so-called Salafis) twist and fabricate lies and accuse the Salaf with beliefs that no Muslim says or accepts, such as the place or bodily parts to Allah. The creed of Salaf complies with the creed of Asharis.

- Imam al-Baqillaniy (one of the great Asharis) said in his book al-'Insaf page 65: "And we do not say that the ^arsh (throne) is a place of settlement or rest for Allah, because Allah existed and there was no place, and when He created the place, He did not change". He also said: "Allah is clear from being in directions, or resembling the creations, and also He is not attributed with transformation or movement, nor with standing or sitting, because such attributes are of the creations, and Allah (the creator) is clear from that".
قال القاضي أبو بكر محمد الباقلاني المالكي الأشعري (403) ما نصه: "ولا نقول إن العرش له- أي الله- قرار ولا مكان، لأن الله تعالى كان ولا مكان، فلما خلق المكان لم يتغير عما كان" اهـ.  وقال أيضا ما نصه: "ويجب أن يعلم أن كل ما يدل على الحدوث أو على سمة النقص فالرب تعالى يتقدس عنه، فمن ذلك: أنه تعالى متقدس عن الاختصاص بالجهات، والاتصاف بصفات المحدثات، وكذلك لا يوصف بالتحول والانتقال، ولا القيام ولا القعود، ولأن هذه الصفات تدل على الحدوث، والله تعالى يتقدس عن ذلك" اهـ.
That's the creed of al-Baqillaniy who reported the creed of the Salaf and Khalaf, which is the creed of the Prophet and the companions.
* When al-Bulqiniy died, Abul Fadl at-Tamimi came to his funeral with bare feet, along with his brothers and friends and ordered to call out during his Janazah: "This is the Imam of Alsunna and the Religion, He is the Imam of the Muslims, He is the one that used to defend the Shari^a and refute those who oppose, He is the one who compiled seventy thousand letters refuting the atheists". And he remained in his mourning ^azza' for three days, and he used to visit his grave every Saturday".
- Al-Hafidh Ibn ^asakr reported from ad-Damghaniy that Imam Abul Hassan at-Tamimi al-Hanbaliy said to his companions "Stick with this man (al-Baqillaniy), for he is indispensable".
- Imam al-Hafidh al-^Iraqiy, and Imam al-Qurafiy, and Ibn Hajar al-Haitamiy, and Mulla ^Ali al-Qari, and Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthariy and others reported that the Imams of the Four Schools whom are the guide of the Ummah (Imam ash-Shafi^iy, Malik, Ahmad and Abu Hanfiah Radiallahu ^anhum) all declared those who attribute to Allah the direction or the body with kufur".
نقل الإمام الحافظ العراقي والإمام القرافي والشيخ ابن حجر الهيتمي وملا علي القاري ومحمد زاهد الكوثري وغيرهم عن الأئمة الأربعة هداة الأمة الشافعي ومالك وأحمد وأبي حنيفة رضي الله عنهم القول بتكفير القائلين بالجهة والتجسيم ".   
This is the belief of all the Muslims. This is the belief of the Salaf, which is the belief of the Ash^aris despite the lies of the liars like the Mushabbihah. So in reality the Salaf were Ash^aries, and below is the proof that the Mushabbihah today such as the Wahhabis or falsely called salafis oppose the beliefs of the true Salaf.
- Imam Ahmad Ibn Salamah, Abu Ja^far at­Tahawiyy, who was born in the year 237 after Hijrah, and was one of the Heads of Great Salaf wrote a book called Al-^Aqidah at­Tahawiyyah. He mentioned that the content of his book is an elucidation of the creed of Ahlus­-Sunnah wal Jama^ah, which is the creed of Imam Abu Hanifah, who died in the year 150 after al­Hijrah, and his two companions, Imam Abu Yusuf al-Qadi and Imam Muhammad Ibn al­Hasan ash-Shaybaniyy and others.
At-Tahawiy said in his book at-Tahawiyah: "Allah is supremely clear of all boundaries, extremes, sides, organs and instruments. The six directions do NOT contain Him--these are attributed to all created things."
Such is the saying of Imam Abu Ja^far who is among the heads of as-Salaf. He explicitly stated that Allah is clear of being contained by the six directions, that is he is confirming that Allah exists without a place. The six directions are above, below, in front of, behind, right, and left. So this is clear evidence that the Salaf cleared Allah from organs, bodily parts, place, direction, limits and al-Kayf (manners of beings).
- Imam at-Tahawiy also said: "And whoever attributes to Allah any of the manners of beings is considered a blasphemer". This is the creed of the true Salafis and not the wahhabis.
- In his book, Ihya'u ^Ulum ad-Din, Imam al-Ghazaliyy said:
"... places do not contain Allah, nor do the directions, earth, or heavens. He is attributed with an "istiwa'" over al-^arsh as He said in the Qur'an--with the meaning that He willed--and not as what people may delude. It is an istiwa' which is clear of touching, resting, holding, moving and containment. Al-^arsh does not carry Him, but rather al-^arsh and those that carry al-^arsh are all carried by Allah with His Power and are subjugated to Him. He is above al-^arsh and above the heavens and above everything--in status-- an aboveness that does not give Him proximity to al-^arsh or the heavens as it does not give Him farness from earth. He is higher in status than everything: higher in status than al-^arsh and the heavens, as He is higher in status than earth and the rest of the creation."
- Imam al-Ghazaliyy said: " Allah, the Exalted, existed eternally and there was no place. He is not a body, jawhar (atom), or property, and He is not on a place or in a place."
- Shaykh ^Abdul-Ghaniyy an-Nabulsiyy said:
"He who believes that Allah filled the heavens and earth or that He is a body sitting above al-^arsh, is a kafir."
- Ibn Hajar al-^Asqalaniy (who is also an Ash^ari hafidh) said in his explanation of Sahih al-Bukhary (Fath al-Bari): "Attributing aboveness (Fawqiyah) to Allah is a matter of status, and the impossibility lies in it being physical." This means Allah exists without a place and is clear from being in a direction or place. And the "Fawqiyah" or aboveness when attributed to Allah it refers to abovness of status and greatness of Allah, the exalted. He is the creator Subhanahu Wa Ta^ala that does not need any of the creations in any way.

This is the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah, the Salaf, Khalaf, Ash^aris and Maturidis, which is the creed of the majority of the Muslim nation.

Allah exists without being in a place or a direction, and He knows best.

The Explanation of the 13 Attributes of Allah

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Islamic Studies - Islamic Beliefs
The Thirteen Attributes of Allah
Every Accountable Person Must Know
(The Accountable is person who is Pubescent, Sane and Heard the call of Islam)

{لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ}
Ayah means: Nothing is similar to Allah and He is attributed with Hearing and Sight

Praise be to Allah, and may Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his Al and Companions, and protect his nation from that which he fears for it. Thereafter:

Allah, the Exalted, said
{وَمَن لَّمْ يُؤْمِن بِاللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَعِيرًا}

which means: For those blasphemers who do not believe in Allah and His Messenger, We have prepared Hellfire .

It is obligatory to believe in Allah and to know what is permissible to attribute to Him, what is necessary to be of His attributes, and what is impossible to be of His attributes. Also, it is obligatory to believe in the Messenger and to know what is befitting for him, what is permissible for him and the other prophets, what is necessary to be of their attributes, and what is impossible to be among their attributes. It is obligatory to declare these beliefs by the tongue by uttering The Testification of Faith (Two Shahadahs):

أشهدُ أنْ لا إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ  وأشهدُ أنَّ محمّداً رسولُ الله

which means: I know, believe and profess no one is God except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

The one who does not believe in Allah and His Messenger is a blasphemer and shall enter Hell eternally. Before proceeding with this treatise let it be known that the judgments of the mind are three kinds:

·         The intellectual necessity: This refers to what the mind does not conceive its non-existence, i.e., non-existence does not apply to its self. Allah is the One Whose Existence is necessary, because the mind does not accept His non-existence, i.e., non-existence does not apply to the Self of Allah.

·         The intellectual impossibility: This refers to what the mind does not conceive its existence, i.e., that to which existence does not apply. The existence of a partner with Allah is an intellectual impossibility, because existence does not apply to it, i.e., the mind does not conceive its existence.

·         The intellectual possibility: This refers to what the mind conceives its existence at one time and its non-existence at another time. This universe and its contents--among what we can see and what we cannot see--is an intellectual possibility. It is so because the mind conceives its existence after a state of non-existence. This is the state of the entire universe. For example, Allah made the human being exist after having been non-existent, and then this human being shall be annihilated (Annihilation of humans is by complete death, which is defined as the soul completely departing the body. The souls do not annihilate and some bodies do not decay in the soil.) This is why the human being's existence is among the intellectual possibilities.

Allah, ta^ala, said

{وَللهِ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلَىَ}

which means: Allah has attributes that do not resemble the attributes of others .

It is obligatory to believe the attributes of Allah are confirmed to Him. He who negates them is called an atheist. Hence, the one who does not believe in the Existence of Allah, i.e., the one who negates Allah's attribute of Existence is called an atheist.

The attributes of Allah that are obligatory to believe in are confirmed to Him. They are not the Self of Allah nor other than the Self of Allah. Rather, we say they are attributes with which Allah is attributed and they are religiously and intellectually obligatory for Him. Imam an-Nasafiyy said: "His attributes are not Him nor other than Him."

The attributes of Allah that every pubescent and sane Muslim is obliged to know are called the attributes of the Self of Allah and Allah is not attributed with their opposites. They are thirteen attributes; the scholars established by consensus he who is ignorant of them is a committer of an enormous sin (fasiq).

These thirteen (13) attributes are: Existence (al-Wujud), Oneness (al-Wahdaniyyah), Eternity (al-Qidam), Everlastingness (al-Baqa'), Non-neediness of others (al-Qiyamu bin-Nafs), Non-resemblance to the creatures (al-mukhalafatu lil-hawadith), Power (al-Qudrah), Will (al-Iradah), Knowledge (al-^Ilm), Life (al-Hayah), Hearing (as-Sam^), Sight (al-Basar), and Speech (al-Kalam).

1- Existence (al-Wujud): It is obligatory to believe in the Existence of Allah. Allah said:

{أَفِي اللهِ شَكٌّ}

which means: [There is no doubt in the Existence of Allah.] Hence, it is obligatory to believe in the Existence of Allah. It is an eternal and everlasting attribute. Allah exists without a beginning, without an ending, and without a place.

2- Oneness (al-Wahdaniyyah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is One without a partner. Allah said:

{فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ}

which means: [Know that no one is God except Allah.] Allah is One in His Self, Attributes, and Doings--hence Allah has no equal. So we say, for example: "Allah is the Creator and no one is a creator except Allah". Allah is One but not as in numbers, because numbers are created. Rather, He is One in that there is no partner with Him.

3- Eternity (al-Qidam): It is obligatory to believe Allah is Eternal, i.e., there is no beginning to His Existence. His attributes are also eternal. Nothing is eternal except Allah and His attributes.

4- Everlastingness (al-Baqa'): It is obligatory to believe Allah is everlasting i.e., His Existence does not end. His Existence is everlasting and His attributes are everlasting. There is nothing everlasting in itself except Allah, because annihilation does not apply to His Self. However, Paradise and Hell are everlasting because Allah willed their everlastingness. Hence, they are everlasting--not in their selves--but because of other than their selves. This is why they are among the intellectual possibilities, and they are part of this universe. Allah said:

{هُوَ الأَوَّلُ وَالآخِرُ }

which means: [Allah is the Eternal, without a beginning, and the Everlasting, without an ending.]

5- Non-neediness of others (al-Qiyamu bin-Nafs): Allah said:

{اللهُ الصَّمَدُ}

which means: [Allah is the Master Who is resorted to in one's needs.] Allah does not need anything. He does not need one to give Him existence because He exists without a beginning. Also, He does not need one to specify Him with Knowledge, instead of ignorance, or other than that among His Attributes, because His attributes exist without a beginning.

6- Non-Resemblance to the Creation (al-Mukhalafatu lil-hawadith): Allah does not resemble any of His creatures--neither in His Self nor in His Attributes nor in His Doings. Allah said:

{لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَىْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ}

which means: [Absolutely there is nothing like Him.] Imam Abu Hanifah said: "The Creator does not resemble His creatures."

7- Power (al-Qudrah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Power, which is defined as an eternal and everlasting attribute of Allah related to giving existence to and annihilating what is intellectually possible. Allah said:

{إِنَّ اللهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ}

which means: [Allah has the Power over everything.] That is, Allah's Power relates to all things that are intellectually possible. Hence, the Power of Allah is not related to the intellectually necessary neither in creating nor annihilating, because annihilation does not apply to it in the first place. The power of Allah is not related to the intellectually impossible neither in creating nor annihilating because existence in the first place does not apply to that which is intellectually impossible. The fact that the power of Allah is not related to the intellectually necessary and the intellectually impossible is not powerlessness, but rather indicates the perfection of Allah. Also, this fact conforms to the judgment of the mind: the intellectually impossible does not turn into an intellectual possibility, and the intellectually necessary does not turn into an intellectual possibility. The Power of Allah is related to the normal impossibilities. For example, although the existence of a sea of mercury is an intellectual possibility, it does not occur, and the Power of Allah is related to it.

8- Will (al-‘Iradah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Will. It is defined as an eternal and everlasting attribute by which Allah specifies the creatures who are intellectual possibilities with some attributes among what is possible for them. An example is specifying a green colored board with green instead of other possible colors. There is no difference in that regard between good and evil, blasphemy and belief, winning and losing, and other opposites among what is intellectually possible.

9- Knowledge (al-^Ilm): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Knowledge. This is an eternal and everlasting attribute of His Self. Allah knows eternally about His Self, attributes, and what He creates. Nothing is absent from His Knowledge.

10- Life (al-Hayah): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Life. Allah said:

{اللهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ}

which means: [There is no God but Allah, and He is attributed with Life, and His existence does not end.] Life is an eternal and everlasting attribute of Allah. The Life of Allah is not like our life, because our life needs a combination of body and soul; however, the Life of Allah is His attribute.

11- Hearing (as-Sam^): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Hearing. This is an eternal and everlasting attribute of Allah with which Allah hears all things that are hearable. There is no difference between what is near to us and what is far from us because Allah is not in a place. He hears without an ear, without means, and without instruments. His hearing is not subject to weakening nor change because weakness and change are non-befitting to Allah. Allah said:

{وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِير}

which means: [He is the One attributed with Hearing and Sight.]

12- Sight (al-Basar): It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Sight. This is an eternal and everlasting attribute of Allah with which He sees all things that are seeable, without an instrument and without means. He sees the things that are far away from us and those that are near to us without any difference because Allah is not in a place. His attribute of Sight does not change or develop, because the One whose Self is eternal does not develop or change. Allah's attributes are eternal and do not develop or change.

13- Speech (al-Kalam) : It is obligatory to believe Allah is attributed with Speech (Kalam). This is an eternal and everlasting attribute with which Allah orders, forbids, and informs. It is not a letter nor a sound nor a language. The Qur'an and the other revealed Books are expressions of the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah. When we write the word "Allah" it is an expression of the Self of Allah. Likewise, the words and sentences of the revealed Books are expressions of the Kalam of Allah. The Qur'an is called the Kalam of Allah because it is not authored by Prophet Muhammad or Angel Jibril. The Qur'an is also used to mean the eternal Kalam of the Self of Allah. Allah said:

{وَكَلَّمَ اللهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا}

which means: [Allah spoke to Musa with His eternal Kalam] i.e., Allah created in Prophet Musa the ability to hear the Kalam of the Self of Allah, which is not a letter nor a sound.

and Allah knows best